• Recognize different types of non-coding RNAs, and recognize/identify their roles in gene expression.
  • Explain the steps of protein synthesis identifying the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Distinguish the nucleotides that compose DNA and RNA.
  • Given DNA sequence data design (probes), recognize their use in different techniques such as PCR, microarray, southern blotting.
  • Predict the fate of a protein based on features of the primary sequence.
  • Apply/use knowledge on DNA replication to explain the behavior of these molecules in different stages and under specific conditions (UV, analogs, salt concentration).
  • Distinguish between RNA dependent and DNA dependent Polymerases and identify the process where they are involved.
  • Explain the process of chain termination DNA sequencing.
  • Explain the processing (splicing, editing) of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). Predict the effects of mutations in the primary RNA sequence.
  • Given a DNA sequence and restriction enzyme data, analyze a band pattern in a gel and generate a restriction map.
  • Identify the specific nucleotide and recognize the distinguishing features.
  • Interpret data obtained from electrophoresis based methods (eg blotting, restriction enzyme, PFGE, gel mobility assays and CHIP).
  • Based on the properties of the polynucleotides predict the outcome of differential chemical or enzymatic treatment.
  • Design a strategy for manipulating DNA molecules in particular scenarios (eg. Radio labeling and sub cloning).
  • Distinguish the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of genome organization, gene structure, and expression and DNA replication.
  • Given a type of DNA damage explain the repair mechanisms that can occur.
  • Identify/recognize and explain the roles of the major proteins involved in the process of DNA replication/RNA synthesis and its regulation.
  • Distinguish the differences in DNA packaging/chromatin organization between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Identify the RNA molecules that participate protein synthesis and explain their contributions.
  • Predict the mRNA and the amino acid sequence given a DNA sequence.
  • Explain the contribution of DNA packaging/chromatin to gene expression and regulation.
  • Provide evidence for the roles of catalytic RNA in different cellular process such as protein synthesis and RNA splicing
  • Identify techniques to study DNA packaging/chromatin (eg CHIP, DNA sensitivity).