• Describe the reciprocal pathways of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
  • Explain how metabolic pathways are controlled by compartmentalization within and between organelles and tissues.
  • Recognize GTPases as on/off switches in vesicular transport and cellular signaling.
  • Recognize high energy intermediates and their role in reaction energetics: substrate level phosphorylation.
  • Recognize how changes in lipoprotein metabolism influence atherosclerosis.
  • Recognize the pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis and its regulation.
  • Recognize the structures and functions of glycerolipids.
  • Describe the concept of feedback regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis.
  • Explain cellular pathways for protein transport and modification and their effects on protein function.
  • Explain how dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins are converted to energy.
  • Explain steroid hormone signaling and receptor action.
  • Recognize modifications of cholesterol in the synthesis of steroid hormones.
  • Analyze the quantity of energy produced from each dietary component (carbohydrates, fatty acid and amino acids).
  • Associate insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine action with the body’s metabolic state and the activity of metabolic pathways in different tissues.
  • Recognize common features in pathways for amino acid synthesis.
  • Recognize metabolic defects in nucleic acid metabolism.
  • Integrate amino acid catabolism with other metabolic pathways.
  • Recall basic principles of regulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways in biochemistry.
  • Recall the steps of insulin and glucagon signaling, and associate possible disruptions of insulin signaling to the development of diabetes.
  • Recognize nitrogen fixation by plants and bacteria as a starting point for the amino group in proteins.
  • Classify pathways for protein catabolism and their roles in cell biology and metabolism.
  • Describe cellular mechanisms of transport that enable the cell to maintain membrane asymmetry and the cellular distribution of lipids.
  • Discriminate the classes of lipoproteins by physical and chemical properties and their functions.
  • Integrate amino acids into purine and pyrimidine metabolism.
  • Integrate glucose metabolism and insulin action with diabetes and obesity.
  • Recognize adipose tissue as an endocrine organ and describe the changes in obesity.
  • Associate the principles of the central control of food intake with the development of obesity.