• Apply Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate the properties of a buffer and the net charge of amino acids and proteins.
  • Describe the basic principles of intracellular signal transduction and discuss how these processes may alter gene expression, protein function and cellular fate.
  • Explain how enzymes can increase the rates of biochemical reactions at the molecular level, and how they may be inhibited or regulated by drugs and toxins.
  • Given free energy of product and substrate or the reduction potential of half reaction, calculate the free energy changes of a reaction and decide whether the reaction would be spontaneous.
  • Interpret given diagrams of enzyme regulation/activity.
  • Recall the three main classes of macronutrients and their digestion.
  • Apply Michaelis-Menten equation to calculate Vmax and Km in absence/presence of effectors.
  • Define hormone action and recognize the steps of the main hormonal signaling mechanisms.
  • Determine the effects of loss of function or gain of function mutations of regulating enzymes or metabolic enzymes on the rate of a reaction given a schematic of enzyme regulation.
  • Identify general features of the common classes of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and amino acids.
  • Recall the activity of the main vitamin classes and their association with enzyme as cofactors.
  • Understand the principles of bioenergetics, including the implications of free energy change occurring in a chemical reaction.
  • Describe and interrelate the hierarchical levels of protein structure (1˚ to 4˚) and provide examples of how this structure relates to the function (or dysfunction) of various classes of proteins.
  • Describe how organisms obtain, store, and utilize energy through metabolic interconversion of biomolecules.
  • Describe the structural features of nucleic acids and be able to distinguish them; describe the basis for information content in a DNA sequence; describe the flow of genetic information and be aware of different discoveries emerging in this area.
  • Identify structure of mono, di, polysaccharides (bonds) and lipids. Explain their distribution, storage, and mobilization.
  • Recall the steps of glucose metabolism, citric acid cycle, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism; identifying the intermediates, enzymes, and regulatory steps.
  • Recognize the main mechanism of action of insulin and/or glucagon and their pathways.
  • Describe the structural features of monosaccharides and be able to depict them; describe the linkages that join monosaccharides to form larger molecules; identify some of the main polysaccharides that occur in nature.
  • Explain how energy and glucose homeostasis are maintained in the human body, and recognize the roles of peripheral and central signals.
  • Outline the major metabolic pathways by which biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids) are synthesized, degraded and transported, and identify the key points at which these pathways are regulated.
  • Recall the role of photosynthesis in plants and the importance of this process in the biosphere; understand the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis at the molecular level.
  • Explain how lipids form membranes and lipoproteins and influence their function, and list different transport mechanisms across membranes.
  • Recognize how metabolic pathways are controlled to maintain homeostasis of organisms under normal physiological conditions, and how this may be disrupted by certain pathological states.