• Compare representative mitochondrial genomes (human, plants, algae) in terms of gene content, organization, and expression.
  • Identify and distinguish intervening sequences (group I introns, group II introns, twintrons, split intron, inteins), using key structural and mechanistic features.
  • Identify key evidences/arguments for hypothesis on the origin/evolution of genes from an RNA world.
  • Interpret features of bacterial genome organization: non-random positioning and orientation of certain genes in relationship to overlapping rounds of genome replication.
  • Interpret plasmid maintenance and evolution in terms of plasmid genes (poison-antidote mechanism).
  • Compare mobile genetic elements (DNA transposons, retrotransposons) as drivers of genome evolution.
  • Interpret genetic mobility of introns and inteins, by comparing mechanisms of intron/intein homing and transposition.
  • Interpret roles of DNA methylation in genome evolution (CpG islands) and gene regulation (epigenetics).
  • Recall DNA replication, transcription, and RNA processing.
  • Given hypothesis on the origin of nuclear genome (composite nature) and organelle genomes (endosymbiosis), identify key evidences and arguments.
  • Identify steps and mechanisms of evolutionary gene transfer from organelle genomes to nuclear genome.
  • Compare different types and mechanisms of RNA editing and translational recoding.
  • Compare different techniques of next generation DNA sequencing in terms of advantages/disadvantages and fields of application.
  • Interpret roles of alternative RNA splicing in expansion of the proteome.