• Describe the basic principles of intracellular signal transduction and discuss how these processes may alter gene expression, protein function and cellular fate. [BIOC 1040] [BIOC 2300]
  • Define hormone action and recognize the steps of the main hormonal signaling mechanisms. [BIOC 2300]
  • Identify general features of the common classes of biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and amino acids. [BIOC 1040] [BIOC 2300]
  • Describe the structural features of nucleic acids and be able to distinguish them; describe the basis for information content in a DNA sequence; describe the flow of genetic information and be aware of different discoveries emerging in this area. [BIOC 2300]
  • Recall the steps of glucose metabolism, citric acid cycle, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism; identifying the intermediates, enzymes, and regulatory steps. [BIOC 2300]
  • Recognize the main mechanism of action of insulin and/or glucagon and their pathways. [BIOC 2300]
  • Explain how energy and glucose homeostasis are maintained in the human body, and recognize the roles of peripheral and central signals. [BIOC 2300]
  • Outline the major metabolic pathways by which biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids) are synthesized, degraded and transported, and identify the key points at which these pathways are regulated. [BIOC 1040] [BIOC 2300]
  • Recall the role of photosynthesis in plants and the importance of this process in the biosphere; understand the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis at the molecular level. [BIOC 2300]
  • Explain how lipids form membranes and lipoproteins and influence their function, and list different transport mechanisms across membranes. [BIOC 2300]
  • Explain how metabolic pathways are controlled to maintain homeostasis of organisms under normal physiological conditions, and give examples of how this may be influenced by nutrition, drugs, and certain pathological states such as diabetes and obesity. [BIOC 1040]